The Last Stageof Imperialism. It is thus no accident that the notion of imperialism arose with the nation-state; it connotes the expansionary drive of a community that is internally organized around the myth of popular sovereignty. The article was influential in the debate concerning theories of 19th century imperialism which, after John A.
One is the presence of a state that is economically and politically dominant on the world stage. The major American colonies became independent during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Supra-National Agents of Imperialism. Against much expectation, decolonization has produced states that figure as core players in the contemporary international economic and political order.
Even empires whose guiding rationale was assimilation the French and the Portuguese, especially depended heavily on indigenous authorities and traditions.
And where political relations are not contested, the absence of overt conflict makes it difficult to know when sovereignty has been achieved. Identification as a colonial dependency greatly increases the chances of mobilizing internal and external support for indigenous nationalism; it also vastly reduces the compulsion that the metropolitan state can legitimately bring to bear.
The colonial period per se came to a close with the wars of national independence in the Americas between andleaving European states in control of little more than trading posts and exhausted sugar plantations. In modern usage, it is generally assumed that the imperial or metropolitan center is physically separated from the dependency and that the two societies are ethnically distinct.
Decolonization required a new vision of the colonial dependency as a national society Anderson ; Diamond Settler colonies generally began as economic corporations chartered by European states. Early decolonization in the Americas was won through military combat between settler and imperial forces.
International Organizations and Prescriptive Action. The continuing imperialism of free trade. It is not clear how much these structures have in common with the overseas colonial empires of Western states, much less with contemporary structures of dependence on foreign investment.
After World War II, metropolitan weakness was a contributing factor as European colonial states found themselves reduced to the position of second-rate powers. None of this expansion involved much metropolitan emigration; colonial officials, traders, planters, and missionaries formed a thin veneer on indigenous societies.
The 19th Century 3: The types of colonies in existence in each period and the nature of the decolonization process varied greatly across the two periods Fieldhouse ; Strang a.
This is in sharp contrast with the Leninist tradition, which argues that colonial forays bring noncapitalist societies into the world economy. Only in Portuguese Brazil was independence achieved without a fight, largely because Brazil was several times richer and more populous than Portugal.
A more political perspective treats imperial activity as flowing from the anarchical structure of the Western state system Cohen ; Waltz In both kinds of colonies, the specific condition that seems to precipitate decolonization is the emergence of peripheral nationalism.
Arrighi, Giovanni The Geometry of Imperialism. British Motives Reconsidered, —95". Others had a largely strategic value; much of the British Empirefor instance, was acquired in the effort to maintain lines of communication to India.
The Administration and Future of the Colonies — Contact with the colonial power exposed these groups to the notions and institutions of the Western nation-state while simultaneously denying them participation rights. Most colonies became independent with little or no organized violence between the imperial state and colonial nationalists.
It has been argued that "hegemonic" states seek to construct a global free-market system that provides them access to markets more cheaply than does formal control Bergesen and Schoenberg ; Boswell ; Krasner The first and second waves of decolonization also differed importantly in the amount of violence involved.
Early American decolonizations were creole revolutions, as the descendants of European settlers sought political autonomy from the "mother country. The dynamics of territorial expansion. The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.
Despite these concerns, it is clear that decolonization involves a fundamental shift in the structures regulating international exchange, especially in the post—World War II era.
Further reading[ edit ] Cain, Peter J.
Their seminal essay "The Imperialism of Free Trade" emphasized the continuity in British policy between the informal imperialism of the mid-eighteenth century and the rush for colonies after A variety of arguments have been developed about factors contributing to decolonization.
He also contended that capital surpluses could be consumed domestically by equalizing the distribution of income. Under these conditions, nationalism was a weapon easily turned on its creators Emerson ; Strang Only with the notion of popular sovereignty does domination refer to relationships between rather than within communities.Title: The Imperialism of Free Trade Created Date: Z.
InJohn Gallagher and Ronald Robinson shook the foundations of imperial history with their essay ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’. They reshaped how historians saw the British empire, focussing not on the ‘red bits on the map’ and the wishes of policy makers in London, but rather on.
THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW SECOND SERIES, VOL. VI, No. I I THE IMPERIALISM OF FREE TRADE BY JOHN GALLAGHER AND RONALD ROBINSON I I T ought to be a commonplace that Great Britain during the nineteenth century expanded overseas by means of 'informal empire" as much as.
Richard Toye and Andrew Thompson discuss Robinson and Gallagher’s article ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’. Episode two: ‘Africa and the Victorians’ [ Listen ] Richard Toye and Andrew Thompson discuss the partition of Africa in the late nineteenth-century and.
John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson, "The Imperialism of Free Trade," The Economic History Review, Second series, Vol. VI, no. 1 () It ought to be a commonplace that Great Britain during the nineteenth century expanded overseas by means of 'informal empire" (1) as much as by acquiring dominion in the strict constitutional sense.5/5(1).
The "imperialism of free trade" thesis as applied to British expansionism in the late nineteenth century has generated considerable controversy. The present volume presents a .Download