Normal flora essay

However, pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is found on the face and hands, particularly in individuals who are nasal carriers. DNA is an actual thing, There are two broad qualities of pathogenic bacteria that can cause disease. Lysozyme, secreted in tears, may play a role in controlling the bacteria by interfering with their cell wall formation.

Unfortunately, this practice contributes to the development and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance within the farm animals, as well as humans. If dental hygiene is not taken care well, this will allows growth of these bacteria, with development of dental caries, gingivitis, and more severe periodontal disease.

The normal flora stimulate the production of natural antibodies. Exotoxins are released from bacterial cells and may act at tissue sites removed from the site of bacteria growth. Microorganisms have been observed in thick layers on gastrointestinal surfaces Fig. Other factors such as peristalsis, saliva, lysozyme secretion, and secretion of immunoglobulins also play roles in flora control.

Survival and implantation of Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract. When positive samples show bacteria, corynebacteria, Neisseriae, and Moraxellae are cultured. The endospores are probably ingested with food and water, and the bacterium does not colonize the intestine.

All but the last two are fairly insignificant.

Microbial Flora and Pathogenicity

Chun Xiao et al. Colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing on an agar plate. Types of adhesions include fimbrial where it attaches on the surface of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fimbriae which is a thin, rigid rod-like structures. The first stage of microbial infection is colonization which is the establishment of the pathogen at the appropriate portal of entry.

Some strains of E. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Mucor are the major types of fungi found under the nails. There are two types of normal flora found which are resident microflora and transient microflora. Blinking every second and lachrymal secretions give no opportunity for microorganisms to colonize the conjunctiva without special mechanisms to attach to the epithelial surfaces and the ability to withstand attack by lysozyme.

The presence of nutrients, epithelial debris, and secretions makes the mouth a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Host Infection by Elements of the Normal Flora This chapter has briefly described the normal human flora; however, the pathogenic mechanisms of various genera or the clinical syndromes in which they are involved was not discussed.

Anaerobes in the intestinal tract are the primary agents of intra-abdominal abscesses and peritonitis. For the microflora in the conjunctiva, numbers of bacteria may be cultivated from the normal conjunctiva but the number of organisms is usually small.

Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Staphylococci and streptococci are also present, and recent reports indicate that Haemophilus parainfluenzae is present in 25 percent of conjunctival samples.

Showing atherosclerosis phenomenon Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque atheroma builds up in the walls of the arteries. Another example of synergism occurs during treatment of "staph-protected infections" when a penicillin-resistant staphylococcus that is a component of the normal flora shares its drug resistance with pathogens that are otherwise susceptible to the drug.

Flora in the oral cavity The oral cavity contains some of the varied and vast flora in the entire human body and is the main entrance for two systems vital to human function and physiology, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. These are considered as commensal ad generally nonpathogenic.The Skin Microbiome Or Skin Microbiota Biology Essay CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.

The investigation involved exposing several isolated body normal flora to a hairspray in order to test whether the microbe was sensitive to the particular hairspray or not. The effects of the normal flora are inferred by microbiologists from experimental comparisons between "germ-free" animals (which are not colonized by any microbes) and conventional animals (which are colonized with a typical normal flora).

Briefly, some of the characteristics of a germ-free animals that are thought to be due to lack of exposure. ´╗┐Intro to Microbiology: Gram stain: Gram + Gram - Exotoxin Except Listeria has endotoxin Endotoxin Except Capsules Strep pneumo VERY Dangerous: (Some Strange Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules).

This free Health essay on Essay: Flora in the oral cavity is perfect for Health students to use as an example.

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The normal flora in humans usually develops in an orderly sequence, or succession, after birth, leading to the stable populations of bacteria that make up the normal adult flora. The main factor determining the composition of the normal flora in a body region is the nature of the local environment, which is determined by pH, temperature, redox.

The normal flora of humans consists of a few eucaryotic fungi and protists, but bacteria are the most numerous and obvious microbial components of the normal flora. Figure 1. Gram stain of a species of Micrococcus, commonly isolated from the skin and nasal membranes of humans.

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Normal flora essay
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