It is widely believed that function concepts are intrinsically normative, since they are teleological. For constructivists, the big problem is to say why we judge some human phenomena to be symptoms of disease whereas others are taken as evidence that someone is criminal or ugly or possessed by demons or something else we do not admire.
Let us now look at changes in the concept of disease more systematically.
Chi Chi and her colleagues distinguish between conceptual change within an ontological category and radical conceptual change that necessitates a change across ontological categories Chi, ; Slotta, Chi, and Joram, An approach like this might offer some traction on the reference class problem outlined above.
Constructivists are often social scientists and their interests may not map neatly on to philosophical concerns. For example, gravity was reconceived as a force, which is a relation rather than a property.
Another view defines goals in terms of the ambitions and desires of the individual. As with disease, however, most scholars who write about health and add further conditions having to do with quality of life.
Values stopped people from getting the science right, but homosexuality was correctly understood, and no longer seen as a disease, when the science was done in a properly disinterested way. Of the mechanisms she discusses, we saw that analogy was very important in the development of the germ theory of diseases by Pasteur and Lister.
Objections to an evolutionary notion of medical malfunction do not show that there is anything wrong with the general idea of basing judgments of health and disease on a scientifically established picture of the normal functional decomposition of human beings.
We may discover facts about obesity and its relationship to blood pressure or life expectancy. Proliferation of microbiological concepts did not simply involve extension of existing classification, but often required revision of kind relations.
Similarly, the classification of diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, rabies, and malaria in terms of their microbial causes shifts these concepts to a new place in The anatomical theory of disease tree of diseases, abandoning their classification in terms of kind of fever or superficial symptoms.
The concept of a drunk, for example, is not just a set of prototypical features or typical examples, but also involves causal relations that can be used to apply the concept in an explanatory fashion: Terms for the various microbes that cause disease had baptismal modes of reference that occurred when researchers such as Koch first observed them under the microscope.
These concepts have common factors, but it is the differences that have led us to today. Perhaps both have naturalist commitments, or perhaps common sense is driven by values and medicine is not, or perhaps physicians are really constructivists who are self-deceived or arguing in bad faith. Through the s, it was very difficult to obtain pure cultures that contained only one kind of bacterium, since liquid solutions tended to contain many kinds of bacteria.
But given the amount of variation within a species, it will always be hard to find reference classes which share a design. Philosophical discussions of the nature of disease include Caplan et al.
This is an attractively simple solution but it is too inclusive. A diagnosis of alcoholism can be scary but it does not mean that treatment and help are not readily available. Branch jumping - reorganizing hierarchies by shifting a concept from one branch of a hierarchical tree to another branch - is similarly nonconservative.
Table 5 lists the relevant parts of the textbook.Humoral Concept, Anatomical Theory and the Germ Theory Essay Words Oct 24th, 3 Pages In this paper I am going to discuss the differences between the Humoral concept of disease, the anatomical theory of disease, the germ theory of disease and the differences between each theory.
Identifying anatomical concepts associated with ICD10 diseases Fleur Mougin1, Olivier Bodenreider2 et Anita Burgun3. 1. LESIM, INSERM U, ISPED, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, France. Disease Theory of Alcoholism. Find Fast. Definition of Alcoholism; Alcoholism as a Disease; to alcohol increases, the abuser must take in more in order to feel the effects, which further damages both the body and brain.
Disease Model. Compounding on this disease model, the theory of addiction being genetic or hereditary was born.
This. These theories, the humoral concept of disease, the anatomical theory of disease, and germ theory are what has lead us to modern medicine, and changed not only how we see and treat disease, but also the human body.
In sum, the transition in the nineteenth century from the humoral theory to the germ theory of disease was highly nonconservative, involving new concepts, new causal rules, and new classifications, as well as the abandonment of old ones.
In the eighteenth century, physicians increasingly turned to anatomy as a foundation for pathology. As a result, disease processes were progressively "localized," that is, said to reside primarily in the disruptions or "lesions" of the solid parts of the body rather than in the imbalance of humors.Download